How to cite:
Mita Fransiska, Irmawan Rahyadi, Olivia Priskha Dewi, Almira Danella Azzahra, Dhea Amelia
Irawan (2024) Influencer Quality in Promoting Perspectives Products, (06) 04,
https://doi.org/10.36418/syntax-idea.v3i6.1227
E-ISSN:
2684-883X
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Ridwan Institute
INFLUENCER QUALITY IN PROMOTING PERSPECTIVES PRODUCTS
Mita Fransiska, Irmawan Rahyadi, Olivia Priskha Dewi, Almira Danella Azzahra,
Dhea Amelia Irawan
Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia
Abstract
Influencers holds an important role in product marketing due to the growth of internet
and social media users in Indonesia as well as the increasing economic value of the e-
commerce sector and has become an effective strategy in influencing consumer
behaviour. A thematic analysis approach was used to identify key themes from literature
searches in scientific databases like Wiley, Taylor & Francis, Sage, and Elsevier, on
English articles from 2020 to 2023, addressing influencer collaborations with brands.
Findings showed influencer quality, factors like credibility, personality, compatibility
between influencer and product, and interaction with followers, contribute to
promotional effectiveness. Use of language, emotional aspects and interaction also have
a significant impact on audience engagement. The influencer's previous testimonials
provide a deeper understanding of the product usage.
Keywords: Influencer marketing, influencer quality, product promotion, thematic
analysis, digital marketing
INTRODUCTION
The development of technology is getting faster, especially in Indonesia as
revealed through data from We Are Social in 2023 which explains that in January 2023
there were 212.9 million internet users in Indonesia and internet penetration reached
77.0 per cent. Based on research, currently there are 167.0 million social media users in
Indonesia, which is equivalent to 60.4 percent of the total population, and there are also
353.8 million active mobile connections, equivalent to 128 percent of the total
population (Fuente-Cobo, Gutiérrez-de-Cabiedes, & Elizaincin, 2023). The growing
number of device users and an increasingly tech-savvy society also bring changes to the
world of marketing in Indonesia, especially digital marketing. According to research by
Google, Temasek, and Bain & Company in 2022, the growth of Indonesia's e-commerce
industry in 2022 reached US$59 billion, which is equivalent to 76.62% of the total
value of Indonesia's digital economy which reached US$77 billion.
The economic value of the e-commerce sector in 2022 increased by 22%
compared to 2021, which was still US$48 billion. When comparing the value before the
COVID-19 pandemic, the e-commerce economy of Indonesia in 2022 was 136% higher
than in 2019, amounting to US$25 billion (Fetter, Coyne, Monk, & Woodruff, 2023).
Bank Indonesia reported a slowdown in the rate of e-commerce growth in December
JOURNAL SYNTAX IDEA
pISSN: 2723-4339 e-ISSN: 2548-1398
Vol. 6, No. 04, April 2024
Mita Fransiska, Irmawan Rahyadi, Olivia Priskha Dewi, Almira Danella Azzahra, Dhea
Amelia Irawan
1698 Syntax Idea, Vol. 6, No. 04, April 2024
2022; however, the institution remains optimistic, predicting that by 2024 Indonesia's e-
commerce growth will achieve 20.45% year-on-year or approximately 689 trillion
(Barta, Belanche, Fernández, & Flavián, 2023). This rapid growth of e-commerce is
believed to be due to the influence of influencer marketing. Influencer marketing is
defined as marketing activities conducted by industry experts or figures who are trusted
by consumers to promote products, create advertisements, or offer reviews of a product
or service (Boerman, Meijers, & Zwart, 2022).
A content creator can also be considered an influencer, as influencers are
essentially individuals with above-average influence on their social network. They often
have their own following and are connected to key players in media outlets, consumer
groups, or industry associations (Yu & Zhao, 2022). Given their potential to reach a
large audience, influencers encourage companies to include them as a relatively new
marketing communication tool, referred to as influencer marketing. The relationship
between the use of social media and the role of influencer marketing is as one of the
techniques in marketing activities where an influencer is a person or figure on social
media with a large or significant number of followers and they are said to be an
influencer because whatever they say on social media can influence their followers.
To prove this statement is true, it is necessary to conduct research in order to get a
good understanding and can be proven if influencers can promote their products that
make others interested in buying them. In the rapidly growing digital and social media
era, the role of influencers is becoming increasingly significant in influencing consumer
behaviour (Chopra, Avhad, & Jaju, 2021). However, to measure the extent of their
influence in promoting products and encouraging others to buy them, careful research is
required. Research will play an important role in providing a deeper understanding of
the mechanisms involved in product promotion by influencers. Factors such as the
influencer's personality, the type of content they produce, the size of the audience, and
interactions with their followers, can all affect the effectiveness of the promotion. By
conducting good research, we can see if there is a correlation between the influencer's
characteristics and the level of interest generated in the products they promote.
The purpose of this narrative review is to identify, analyse and synthesise
evidence presented in qualitative research relating to the quality of influencers in
promoting products. The main research questions according to the PICo (Population,
Importance, and Context) format are as follows:
1. How can an influencer inform many people about a product?
2. How an influencer can influence others to buy products?
RESEARCH METHODS
This research uses a thematic analysis approach. According to Hazari, thematic
analysis is a research method that seeks to identify and analyze patterns of themes or
topics emerging from various relevant data sources (Hazari, Talpade, & Brown, n.d.).
This method involves the process of sorting, selecting and interpreting data to reveal
patterns of meaning underlying the texts being analysed. In this research, thematic
analysis will be conducted by identifying and analysing the main themes that emerge
from various reference sources, such as articles, books, presentation slides, as well as
information from internet sources relevant to the topic discussed. The literature search
was conducted using scientific databases: Wiley Taylor and Francis, Sage, Elsevier, and
Scopus. The search keywords were as follows: Social Media, Influencer, Product, Level
Influencer Quality in Promoting Perspectives Products
Syntax Idea, Vol. 6, No. 04, April 2024 1699
of Interaction, Credibility, Trust, Influencer Quality, Communication Strategy,
Targeting, Authenticity and Authenticity, Marketing Impact and Results, Criticism and
Challenges, Ethics and Responsibility, Relationship with Brands, Trends and
Innovations and Recommendations for Business Practice.
The search was limited to articles in English published during the period 2020-
2023 to ensure the latest information was obtained. The information involved both
qualitative and quantitative research (not limited to research design) focusing on
influencers and perceptions around influencer collaboration with brands. The
quantitative approach was to measure the real impact of influencer campaigns, sales
conversion and audience participation trends, while the qualitative research provided an
opportunity to explore aspects that are difficult to measure quantitatively, such as
perceptions, linkages between products and influencers.
Table 1. Research Review Flow
Wiley
Exploration Journal
Journal Keyword
Sample
Search Result Data Base Searching
Social Media : Influencer
351.014
Search Result Filter Journal
Social Media : Influencer
300.546
Search Result Filter Journal Communication
Social Media : Influencer
2.119
Search Result Filter Date Range 2019-2023
Social Media : Influencer
10
The first search based on Wiley's overall data with the keyword Social Media:
Influencers returned 351,041 papers. The journals were then filtered to 10 journals that
met the inclusion criteria and identified based on quality assessment.
Table 2. Research Review Flow
Taylor & Francis
Exploration Journal
Journal Keyword
Sample
Search Result Data Base Searching
Social Media : Influencer
522.403
Search Result Filter Journal
Social Media : Influencer
71.603
Search Result Filter Journal Communication
Social Media : Influencer
7.288
Search Result Filter Date Range 2019-2023
Social Media : Influencer
9
The second search based on Taylor & Francis' overall data with the keyword
Social Media: Influencers yielded 522,403 papers. Journal screening was then
conducted until only 9 studies fulfilled the criteria and were identified based on quality
assessment.
Table 3. Research Review Flow
Sage
Exploration Journal
Journal Keyword
Sample
Search Result Data Base Searching
Social Media : Influencer
272.366
Search Result Filter Journal
Social Media : Influencer
222.338
Search Result Filter Journal Communication
Social Media : Influencer
13.726
Search Result Filter Date Range 2019-2023
Social Media : Influencer
7
The third search was based on Sage's overall data with the keyword Social Media:
Influencers returned 272,366 papers. The journals were then screened for 7 studies that
met the inclusion criteria and identified based on quality assessment.
Mita Fransiska, Irmawan Rahyadi, Olivia Priskha Dewi, Almira Danella Azzahra, Dhea
Amelia Irawan
1700 Syntax Idea, Vol. 6, No. 04, April 2024
Elsevier
Table 4. Research Review Flow
Exploration Journal
Journal Keyword
Sample
Search Result Data Base Searching
Social Media : Influencer
10.661
Search Result Filter Journal
Social Media : Influencer
551
Search Result Filter Journal Communication
Social Media : Influencer
126
Search Result Filter Date Range 2019-2023
Social Media : Influencer
4
The fourth search was based on Elsevier's overall data with the keyword Social
Media: Influencers obtained 10,661 papers. Then filtering to the last type of Social
Science journals used was 126 papers. Of these 126 papers, only 4 studies met the
inclusion criteria and were identified based on quality assessment.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
There are several factors that can potentially influence the effectiveness of
promotions by influencers. In this case, the personal characteristics of the influencer, the
type of content they produce, the size and interaction with the audience, as well as the
credibility they have, can all play an important role in the effectiveness of the promotion
which is summarised in the table of past research as follows:
Table 5. 6 Previous Studies
No
Authors
Title
Journal
Name
Methodology
Findings
Affiliate
1
Syed Asim
Shah,
Muhammad
Haroon
Shoukat,
Waseef Jamal,
Muhammad
Shakil Ahmad
What Drives
Followers-
Influencer
Intention in
Influencer
Marketing? The
Perspectives of
Emotional
Attachment and
Quality of
Information
SAGE
Journal
A hypothetical
model was tested
based on social
learning theory
and media
dependence.
Follower-
influencer
emotional
attachment and
perceived
information
quality.
COMSATS
University
Islamabad, Punjab,
Pakistan. Institute
of Management
Sciences, Pakistan.
Business Faculty
Sohar University
Oman, Attock,
Pakistan
2
Nicole
O’Donnell,
Sultana Ismet
Jerin, Di Mu
Using TikTok to
Educate,
Influence, or
Inspire? A
Content Analysis
of Health-Related
EduTok Videos
Taylor &
Francis
Journal
We conducted a
mixed-methods
content analysis
of N = 400 health
videos from the
prosocial EduTok
campaign.
Our results show
that viewers
interact most
frequently with
educational
videos related to
diet, exercise and
sexual health.
Edward R. Murrow
College of
Communication,
Washington State
University,
Washington, USA
3
Sophie C.
Boerman,
Marijn H. C.
Meijers,
Wietske Zwart
The Importance
of Influencer-
Message
Congruence
When Employing
Greenfluencers to
Promote Pro-
Environmental
Taylor &
Francis
Journal
We conducted an
online experiment
with 2 (influencer
message
incongruence vs.
message
congruence) × 2
(micro influencer
Influencers
whose image
aligns with pro-
environmental
messages are
important
Amsterdam School
of Communication
Research (ASCoR),
University of
Amsterdam,
Netherlands
Influencer Quality in Promoting Perspectives Products
Syntax Idea, Vol. 6, No. 04, April 2024 1701
No
Authors
Title
Journal
Name
Methodology
Findings
Affiliate
Behavior
vs. meso
influencer).
4
Yixin Zhang,
Lancy Mac
Social media
influencers: The
formation and
effects of
affective factors
during online
interactions
Wiley
Journal
An online survey
was conducted
among 304 social
media users in
Mainland China
who have
followed social
media influencers
The results
highlighted the
formation of two
affective factors,
namely
familiarity and
intimacy.
Faculty of Business
Administration,
University of
Macau, China,
5
Holly A.
Syrdal a,
Susan Myers
b, Sandipan
Sen c, Parker
J. Woodroof d,
William C.
McDowell
Influencer
marketing and the
growth of
affiliates: The
effects of
language features
on engagement
behavior
Elsevier
Journal
The authors
applied the
Elaboration
Likelihood Model
Insights into how
specific
linguistic cues
influence
engagement with
influencer
affiliate
marketing.
Department of
Marketing, Texas
State University in
San Marcos
6
Anjali Chopra,
Vrushali
Avhad, and
and Sonali
Jaju
Influencer
Marketing: An
Exploratory Study
to Identify
Antecedents of
Consumer
Behavior of
Millennial
SAGE
Journal
This study uses
the theory of
planned
behaviour (TPB)
by Ajzen (1991)
and social
learning theory
by Bandura and
Walters (1963) as
part of qualitative
research
Successful
influencer
marketing
involves
identifying the
right kind of
influencers who
will offer curated
advice, stories
and suggestions
to create
engagement with
the audience.
Associate
Consultant, Infosys
Ltd., Hyderabad,
India. Faculty of
Marketing, K. J.
Somaiya Institute
of Management
Studies &
Research, Somaiya
Vidyavihar
University,
Mumbai,
Maharashtra, India.
Analyst, Willis
Towers Watson,
Mumbai, India.
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1702 Syntax Idea, Vol. 6, No. 04, April 2024
Influencer Quality
Communication
Strategy
Target Accuracy
Authenticity and Authenticit
Marketing Impact and Results
Content Relevance to
the Target Audience
Message Delivery
Capability
Knowing Targets
Openness to Personal
Experience
Ability to Influence the
Audience
Content Quality
Speech Quality
Adapting to
Conditions
Consistent in Content
Creation
Creating New Buyers
Interaction With
Followers
Knowledge
Do Not Manipulate Products
Figure 1. Model structure of attributes and factors influencing the quality of
influencers in promoting products
Influencer Quality
In the ever-evolving digital era, the role of influencers in promoting product
perspectives has become an important aspect of marketing strategies. Identifying the
qualities that make an influencer effective in promoting a product is an interesting
challenge to explore. At this stage, Chen emphasizes the importance of examining and
identifying attributes and qualities that stimulate strong interactions between influencers
and audiences (Chen, Li, & Sun, 2023). One aspect that needs to be considered is the
influencer's personality that can provide attraction and emotional connection to their
followers. In addition, credibility also plays an important role in building trust between
influencers and audiences, which in turn can affect how product messages are received
(Syrdal, Myers, Sen, Woodroof, & McDowell, 2023). Credibility is one of the elements
that form the basis for an influencer's effectiveness in promoting a product perspective.
In addition to an engaging personality, the level of trust held by the influencer within
the online community or social media platform also plays an important role. When an
influencer has a strong track record of providing accurate and honest reviews of
products, audiences are more likely to accept and consider such recommendations.
Therefore, in identifying the quality of influencers, it is important to analyze how this
credibility is built and maintained through consistent interactions with followers (Shah,
Shoukat, Jamal, & Ahmad, 2023).
Personal appeal and the ability to connect with the audience are also important
factors in the quality of an influencer. Influencers who are able to deliver messages in
an authentic and engaging way can create an emotional bond with their followers.
Authenticity in the self-presentation and narrative provided by the influencer can help
create a space where the audience feels connected and inspired. In this qualitative
analysis, it is worth considering how the influencer's communication style is, as well as
Influencer Quality in Promoting Perspectives Products
Syntax Idea, Vol. 6, No. 04, April 2024 1703
how he or she is able to utilize personal narratives to connect the product with the
experiences and values of his or her followers (Stein, Breves, & Anders, 2022). Besides
the attributes of personality, credibility and attractiveness, there are other factors that
also play a role in shaping the positive image of an influencer. For example, consistency
in providing quality and relevant content to the audience is also an important factor.
Influencers who are able to maintain quality standards and stay focused on topics that fit
their niche tend to build stronger relationships with their followers. In addition, it is
important to analyse how influencers manage interactions with followers, including
responses to comments and questions, as well as the ability to create an actively
engaged community.
Identifying the qualities of influencers is an important first step in understanding
their role in promoting a product perspective. In identifying and analyzing effective
attributes, O'Donnell notes that there is no single approach to becoming a successful
influencer (O’Donnell, Jerin, & Mu, 2023). However, by considering aspects such as
personality, credibility, attractiveness, consistency, and interaction with followers, this
study can provide valuable insights for marketing practitioners and researchers in
understanding how influencers can influence consumer perceptions and actions.
Communication Strategy
The communication strategies employed by them play a key role in connecting
products with audiences. With billions of active users across various social media
platforms, influencers have taken on the role of intermediaries between brands and
consumers. One interesting aspect is the various communication strategies used by
influencers in communicating product perspectives to audiences (Abed & Barzilai,
2023). Through creative and diverse approaches, influencers can influence the
perception and purchase decisions of their followers. Visual content is one of the
important pillars in an influencer's communication strategy. Aesthetically pleasing and
engaging displays can attract followers to interact with the content presented.
Influencers often use images and videos that showcase products in an appealing way,
whether through lifestyle, product usage or unique visual presentation. Creative product
visualisations can help followers imagine how the product can meet their own needs or
lifestyle.
Story narrative is also a very effective tool in influencer communication strategy.
Talking about meaningful product stories can create an emotional bond with the
audience. Influencers often share personal experiences or product usage stories that
have sentimental or inspirational value. This can help the product become more than
just an item, but a part of a life journey or personal achievement. Active interaction with
followers is an important element in an influencer's communication strategy. Through
comments, private message responses or live Q&A sessions, influencers can interact
directly with their followers. This kind of interaction not only strengthens the bond
between the influencer and the audience, but also provides an opportunity to provide
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additional information, clarification or further guidance on the promoted product
(Zhang & Mac, 2023).
The choice of social media platform is also a key factor in an influencer's
communication strategy. Each platform has unique characteristics and different
audiences, so influencers must understand how to utilise each platform appropriately.
Some platforms may be better suited for visual content, while others are better suited for
storytelling narratives or in-person interactions. Analysing the platforms that best suit
the target audience can help influencers achieve greater impact and more effective
results in promotional campaigns.
Target Precision
In the ever-evolving world of marketing, the success of campaigns conducted by
influencers depends not only on the creativity of the content, but also on the accuracy of
the target. A discussion on how influencers can ensure that their message resonates with
the product's target audience is at the core of this analysis. Why is this important?
Because a relevant and interested audience has a greater potential to respond positively
to the messages and recommendations provided by the influencer. One of the keys in
ensuring targeting accuracy is a deep knowledge of the market being served. Influencers
who understand the trends, preferences and needs of potential audiences have an edge in
directing their messages in a relevant and engaging way. With a good understanding of
consumer trends and market dynamics, influencers can tailor their communication
strategies to better match the expectations and desires of the audience (Hurley, 2022).
A deep understanding of your audience also means recognising demographic,
psychographic and consumer behavioural characteristics. Influencers who carefully
investigate the background, values, and interests of their target audience will be able to
identify the points that connect the product to the followers' needs or aspirations
(Majchrzak, Faraj, Kane, & Azad, 2013). With a more targeted approach, influencers
can create content that is more relevant and appealing to their target demographic group.
Flexibility and the ability to adapt to different demographic groups are key factors in
maintaining targeting accuracy. Each audience has different characteristics, and
influencers who are able to tailor their message to the language, style and context that
best suits that audience will be more effective in reaching and engaging with them. This
can include using cultural references, delivering messages with relevant narratives, and
adapting visual displays.
In the face of diverse and complex audiences, the use of data and analytics can be
an important tool for influencers to understand and fulfill target needs (Belanche,
Casaló, Flavián, & Ibáñez-Sánchez, 2021). Through social media platform analytics
tools, influencers can track responses and interactions with their content, helping them
understand which aspects work best and which need to be improved. This data can
provide valuable insights to improve future targeting accuracy and form a more
thoughtful marketing strategy.
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Authenticity
In an information age filled with adverts and promotions seeking to grab
consumers' attention, authenticity and authenticity have become important elements in
influencer marketing strategies. Discussions on the importance of authenticity and
genuineness in efforts to promote product perspectives reflect the need for consumers to
feel connected to brands and the recommendations they receive. Stein, Breves, and
Anders, op. cit. In an increasingly powerful digital sphere of influence, followers tend to
respond more positively to influencers who are seen as honest, genuine and trustworthy.
The authenticity of influencer marketing reflects the congruence between what the
influencer conveys and the values they personally hold. Followers feel engaged when
they feel that the influencer genuinely has an interest in or positive experience with the
product being promoted. For example, if an influencer promotes a beauty product and
they consistently share beauty tips or skincare routines, this can demonstrate the
consistency and authenticity of their recommendations.
Authenticity in influencer communication is about opening up and speaking from
the heart to the followers. Followers feel connected to influencers who talk about
personal experiences, challenges faced and their journey with a particular product or
brand. When influencers share personal stories about how a product has impacted their
lives or provided a solution to a particular problem, it builds a sense of empathy and
removes the suspicion that the message is simply the result of marketing efforts. When
influencers are able to portray themselves as genuine and trustworthy individuals,
followers tend to form deeper and more sustainable bonds. They feel that the
influencer's recommendations are guidance coming from a trustworthy source, not just
an advertisement aimed at them. Authenticity allows followers to feel part of a larger
community, which shares the same values and interests as the influencer.
In the tumultuous world of social media, an influencer's well-maintained
reputation as genuine and authentic can open the door to continued collaboration with
brands and a growing following. Followers will feel more comfortable receiving
product recommendations, and will be more likely to develop loyalty towards brands
recommended by influencers they trust. Hence, authenticity and genuineness are not
only important aspects in marketing communications, but also in building long-term
relationships between influencers, brands and followers.
Marketing Impact and Results
Measuring the impact of influencer marketing efforts is becoming increasingly
relevant in the ever-changing world of marketing. An overview of the impact and results
of working with influencers can provide valuable insights for brands and marketers.
Analyzing how influencer marketing efforts affect product image and sales can provide
a deep understanding of the effectiveness of these strategies in inspiring consumers and
influencing purchase decisions (Deiss & Henneberry, 2017). The influence of
influencers on product image can be seen in how brands are presented to audiences.
Case studies or empirical findings on how influencers integrate brand messages with
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their own lifestyles and values can provide insights into the extent to which the brand
image can become an authentic part of the influencer's followers' lives. When
influencers genuinely and consistently represent a product, the positive image they
create can cascade down to followers' perception of the brand.
In addition to brand image, influencers' influence can also have a significant
impact on product sales. Through increased awareness, followers' trust in a particular
product can increase their propensity to seek more information or even make a
purchase. Some empirical findings suggest that marketing campaigns through
influencers can increase sales conversion rates and accelerate purchase decisions,
especially when influencers share their positive experiences with products. Case studies
and empirical research involving influencers can provide concrete examples of how
their influence can change consumer perception and behaviour. For example, case
studies involving influencers in the fashion industry can illustrate how followers are
inspired to feel confident and connected to a brand after seeing the positive
transformation brought about by a particular product. Findings such as these provide
concrete evidence of how the interaction between influencers and products can
influence the climate of consumer perception.
In a world increasingly connected through social media platforms, the impact of
influencer marketing can also transcend geographical boundaries. Empirical findings on
how influencers can trigger sales spikes on a regional or even international scale can
open up new business opportunities for brands. This highlights the importance of
understanding the audience targeted by influencers, both geographically and
demographically, to optimise the marketing results generated.
Figure 2. Model structure of attributes and factors influencing the quality of
influencers in promoting products
Influencer Quality in Promoting Perspectives Products
Syntax Idea, Vol. 6, No. 04, April 2024 1707
Criticisms and Challenges
While influencer marketing has become a highly effective strategy in the digital
world, it cannot be ignored that this practice also has its critics and challenges that need
to be addressed. These criticisms and challenges arise in response to the rapid
development and transformation that influencers have made in steering public opinion.
According to Caiado, it is important to critically explore the potential criticisms as well
as challenges that may arise in implementing this strategy (Caiado et al., 2023). One
common criticism is the issue of transparency. Followers often expect that
recommendations provided by influencers are based on genuine experiences or personal
views, not just the result of compensation or sponsorship. When followers feel that
content is not transparent or is directed by other interests, this can damage the trust and
image of the influencer and the brand they are promoting.
Another challenge is brands' dependence on influencers. Sometimes, a brand's
relationship with an influencer can create a significant dependency. If a brand relies too
much on an influencer's promotion, they may lose control of the message and become
more susceptible to changes in the influencer's reputation. This can create uncertainty in
the long run if the influencer decides to move on or undergo a rebrand. In addition, the
uncertainty of results is also a challenge to consider. While influencers have the
potential to influence consumer perceptions and actions, the end result of an influencer
marketing campaign cannot always be predicted with certainty. Campaign performance
can be affected by many factors, including changing market trends, unexpected
reactions from followers, and fluctuations in social media platform algorithms (Dwivedi
et al., 2021). Brands and influencers need to be prepared for this uncertainty and
develop mitigation strategies accordingly.
To address these criticisms and challenges, it is important for brands and
influencers to adopt transparent and ethical practices. Clear disclosure of paid
collaborations, as well as recognising the effects of compensation in the messages
delivered, can help maintain transparency and build follower trust. In addition, brands
also need to diversify their marketing strategies to avoid over-reliance on one or a few
influencers. By doing this, potential criticisms and challenges can be managed more
effectively, while still maintaining the integrity and positive impact of influencer
marketing.
Ethics and Responsibility
In an era of digital marketing dominated by influencers, ethical considerations
play a central role in ensuring the honesty and integrity of communications delivered to
audiences. A discussion on ethics and responsibility is an important foundation for
understanding how influencers should perform their role in promoting a product
perspective. These ethics include moral principles that direct influencers to act honestly,
transparently and responsibly towards their followers. One significant ethical
consideration is transparency in the relationship between influencers and brands
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(Okonkwo & Namkoisse, 2023). Followers expect honesty about whether the content
delivered by an influencer is a genuine recommendation or the result of financial
compensation. Clear disclosure of any compensation or partnership helps prevent
confusion and maintain audience trust. Therefore, influencers have an ethical
responsibility to provide followers with clear information about their relationship with
the brand.
Ethical standards also pertain to the accuracy of information conveyed by
influencers. Influencers have a responsibility to ensure that what they say about a
product or service is accurate and based on actual experience. Exaggerated or
unverifiable claims can undermine the trust of followers and damage the reputation of
influencers and the brands they promote. Therefore, the use of correct data and relevant
experience in product recommendations is crucial in maintaining the integrity of the
content. The ethical responsibility of influencers also involves an awareness of the
possible impact of the messages delivered. They should consider how their messages
may affect followers, especially in terms of purchasing decisions or consumer
behaviour. In some cases, influencers have very young or vulnerable followers, so they
have a special responsibility not to promote harmful or inappropriate products or
behaviours.
In carrying out their roles, influencers must also adhere to the ethical standards of
the social media platforms or communities they participate in. This includes avoiding
practices such as spamming, buying fake followers, or interacting with negative or
harmful messages. They should also respect privacy and copyright and adhere to the
social media platform's guidelines on appropriate and non-breaking posts.
Brand Relationship
The relationship between influencers and brands has become an important
element in modern marketing. Discussions on how these relationships can impact the
effectiveness of marketing campaigns illustrate the importance of strong and strategic
collaborations in achieving marketing objectives. In an era where followers pay close
attention to interactions and endorsements from influencers, combining brand and
influencer identity has become a critical element in achieving successful outcomes. The
alignment of the brand with the influencer's values and identity is a critical factor in
determining whether the collaboration will be successful. Influencers who have values
aligned with the brand tend to exude authenticity in recommending products or services
(Okonkwo & Namkoisse, 2023). Followers feel more trust in recommendations coming
from influencers who are seen to share similar views on important things in life. In
addition to value congruence, an aspect that influences campaign effectiveness is the
continuity of collaboration between the influencer and the brand. Long-term
collaborations have the potential to create deeper and more meaningful relationships
between brands, influencers and followers. Influencers who consistently represent a
brand over a longer period of time can develop a stronger bond with their followers,
which in turn impacts their ability to influence purchasing decisions.
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Ongoing collaborations also contribute to brand credibility in the eyes of
followers. If followers see an influencer repeatedly recommending products from the
same brand,